Chinese Bike-Sharing Services Turning to Credit Scoring Systems?

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*source: publicdomainpictures Many bicycles have flooded China’s streets, but these bicycles don’t belong to individual people. Instead, they are part of what are called “bike-sharing” services. And now, they are hitting speed bumps in China.

There is lots of concern about this model among people in the startup and venture capital industries. Most think that most bike-sharing services will go bankrupt because they have a poor business model, and their bicycles are just spreading lumps of scrap metal across China. Also, there is lots of cheating the system in online-to-offline bike-sharing services.

Most of these companies have suffered from theft and equipment damage. According to a Forbes report, bike-sharing services have been criticized for being subject to repeated vandalism and theft, and for having constant costs instead of declining costs as the firms expand.

For example, the bike-sharing firm Wukong Bicycle(悟空单车) in Chongqing(重庆), China, officially announced its closure because 90% of its bicycles had been stolen. They closed after just six months of operations with 1200 bicycles, none of which were protected from robbery with things like GPS or user-certification systems.

90% of Wukong’s bicycles had been stolen *source: sina But I don’t think all bike-sharing services will immediately shut down, as they could have great potential to grow by taking advantage of data about users’ offline activity.

China’s bike-sharing services are moving beyond the simple sharing economy by using credit scoring systems. Mobile payment systems are the core of this movement. Ofo and Mobike, the two biggest bike-share startups, are operated by scanning QR codes by customers who use a mobile app.

*source: woshipm In China, mobile payment systems have become hubs for taking commercial ecosystems, built online over a decade, offline. Mobile payment is crucial to this offline digitization of new ventures in the sharing economy.

China: A Cashless Society?

Not only do QR payments represent convenience for customers, but they also create new credit pipelines between service providers and users. For example, Ofo employs ‘Sesame Credit(芝麻信用),’ developed by Ant Financial Group, while Mobike uses ‘Qianhai Credit(前海征信),’ which belongs to the PingAn Group(平安集团), and Tencent Credit Scoring Service(腾讯信用).

*source: istockphoto Sesame Credit is a social credit scoring system serviced by Ant Financial Group, which is also behind Alipay. It uses data from Alibaba’s services to compile its score. The score is used to rank Chinese users based on a variety of factors such as loyalty to the government and brands based on social media interactions and online purchases in Taobao and Tmall. With high Sesame Credit scores, users earn rewards like deposit waivers on bicycle rental services, or even get visa waivers when they travel overseas. Qianhai Credit and Tencent Credit are another companies that use a similar model.

All a user’s commercial activities are counted, including when they buy something on Taobao(淘宝), go to work using Didichuxing(滴滴出行), a car-sharing system, or order lunch using the delivery service, Eleme(饿了么).

Sesame Credit Scoring Service These two services create an ecosystem in which credit score affects people’s financial lives. When users apply for a loan or credit card, lenders base approval decisions in part on applicants’ credit health. The system also helps bike-sharing services to prevent theft and vandalism of their bicycles, because a user’s illegal action will cause their credit score to decrease.

Aside from the obvious benefit of preventing damage to the bicycles, these systems also collect various data about consumers that they spontaneously bring to these systems, which collect and analyze information about what people really want when moving from online to offline environments.

“Now China’s various ‘fintechs,’ or financial companies, are using Sesame Credit. People even can use that credit service when they apply for loans at offline banks, not related to the Alibaba group” said Wenxiong Wu, CEO of 91Jinrong (91金融) , the most famous Chinese fintech company, in an interview with me in March of this year. Wenxiong Wu, CEO of 91Jinrong China’s fintech companies’ movement offline is based on mobile payment systems. However, this change hasn’t simply meant the creation of convenient payment environments for customers. In China, mobile payment systems have become hubs for moving commercial ecosystems offline, after these have been built up over a decade online. From online-to-offline to the the offline digitization of new types of retail services, mobile payments covers it all.

A credit scoring system is a great channel for connecting online-to-offline, because it makes it easy to collect people’s data through that credit system. This is a reason that Alibaba, PingAn and Tencent focus on the growth of their credit systems. Their targets are offline systems. Many Chinese people ride bicycles when they go to school or work, as it is a cultural habit. Nothing is better than gathering their data.

That’s why bike-sharing services can get beyond the sharing economy system by using these new credit systems.

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바야흐로 중국은 짧은 동영상 시대

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텐센트·알리바바의 '동상이몽'

콰이쇼우(快手)나 먀오파이(秒拍). 짧은 동영상(짤방)은 중국 콘텐츠 플랫폼의 대세가 됐다. 중화권을 중심으로 한 스타트업 전문 미디어 플래텀의 보도에 따르면 중국 최대 뉴미디어 플랫폼 진르터우탸오의 2017 년 1 분기 동영상 부문 우수 작품 10,166 개의 평균 재생 시간은 247 초, 100만 회 이상 노출된 동영상의 평균 재생 시간은 238.4초였다. '짧은 동영상'에 대한 컨텐츠 이용자들의 만족도가 가장 높았다.


앞으로 이런 말을 만들어 써야겠습니다. 보여주는 면면이 참 한결 같이 나쁘네요.


Long the responsibility of State Governments, the Australian Federal Government has been considering what central role they might play in the development of cities. As the country struggles with population growth, economic transition and climate change, the solutions offered by IoT technologies, smart and connected cities and infrastructure is of increasing national interest.

At a public hearing on 22nd August in Sydney, the IoT Alliance of Australia (IoTAA) presented a compelling argument for the Federal Government to play a more hands-on role in formally establishing an interoperable and secure framework for open data and case study sharing across all levels of government and industry.

In a relatively small country like Australia, we think it makes extremely good sense to collaborate, share lessons and best practice as we develop our smart cities. Opportunity, money and time will be wasted if each city and state embarks upon their individual IoT and smart city journey without consideration to collaboration, integration and interoperability.

Naturally a key part of collaboration is in information and data sharing - between and within government agencies, cities and states. Much to be gained in moving beyond this to open and democratic data sharing between government as well as commercial sectors, particularly as we as so dependent on one another for improved quality of services and life in our cities.

In the energy management and monitoring space, we believe in the critical importance of generating free and open data and using this data to make informed decisions and to help change behaviour. What could we collectively achieve if we openly shared our data within the context of the city and country, be it energy or water consumption, people movement, shared services and the like?

Given cities are fundamentally about people, can we also consider encouraging citizens to share their data too?

The IoTAA believe so. In Sydney, CEO Frank Zeichner noted that citizens are an "unrealised resource" in the IoT ecosystem. If incentivised in the right way, citizens can and will play a greater role in collecting and sharing data - for example, sharing electricity, gas, and water meter data with city councils in exchange for a discount on utility bills.

By including citizens in this journey, by collaborating across all aspects of our cities and through the generation of open, usable data we believe city planners will truly be able to build informed, smart and evolving cities for the future.

Buddy is proud to be a member of the IoTAA and support this call for data sharing and collaborating. Moreover, our Buddy Ohm service will actively help organisations unlock, understand and act on their own data.

유닉스에 대한 기억

하이텔 유닉스 동호회 자유게시판에 2002년 즈음에 쓴 것 같습니다, 앞으로 유닉스는 커널만 남고 유틸리티들은 자유/오픈소스소프트웨어로 된 배포판이 될 것 같다고.

그 때에도 GNU/Hurd를 애써서 노력하면 설치할 수 있었습니다. 이게 설치 CD 같은 형태로 패키징된 것은 없었습니다.
Solaris나 UnixWare, Tru64 등 유닉스에는 GNU의 유틸리티를 한 두 개는 설치했고요. 특히 gzip은 꼭. gcc, gmake 같은 것도 보통.

그 글에 어느 분이 답글을 쓰길, 그렇게 되지는 않을 거다, 무리한 상상이다라고.

지금 돌아보면 꼭 맞지도, 별로 틀리지도 않았다는 생각이 듭니다. 커널만 남을 거라는 건 이런 뜻이었습니다. 유닉스 커널 내 신기능은 거의 없다. 하드웨어 개선에 맞추어 그 하드웨어를 위한 드라이버는 계속 개발될 것이다. 다수가 참여하는 자유/오픈소스소프트웨어 개발의 물결이 자본을 바탕으로한 개발을 압도할 것이다.
상업용 유닉스 커널이 남을 거라는 예상은 틀렸습니다. 하드웨어 측면에서는 아예 Linux 커널에게 문을 완전 개방하게 되었으니까요.

요즘 Linux 커널 소스코드 묶음을 보면 크기가 엄청 큽니다. 10 몇 MB 정도였을 때가 기억에 있는데요. 커널 컴파일 하려고 설정하다보면 드라이버가 엄청 많아졌다는 걸 실감하게 됩니다.

이제 Solaris에게도 인사를 하게 되면서 새삼 그 때 기억이 떠오릅니다.